Depending on how much money you play with, you can earn quite a bit of complimentary gifts and discounts at restaurants, stores and theatres.
The odds in blackjack vary as much by casino as they do by table. Many tourists never leave it during their stay.
Player’s cards are cards offered at many casinos to gamblers who want to earn perks when they play.
If you’ve heard of Las Vegas, then I’d bet you’ve heard of the strip. It has one of the highest concentrations of quality casinos and entertainment in the city. Some casinos use 8 decks and a shuffling machine to increase the house odds (or casino’s odds) and to make card counting almost impossible. Other Las Vegas casinos play with just one deck with small bets to attract players. With small decks, you’ll probably be seeing the better odds of 3:2, more and more, you’ll start to see rates of 6:5. This means if you hit a blackjack and your bet is $10 you’ll be paid $15 at a table with a 3:2 payout, but you’d win just $12 at a 6:5 paying table.. What is the strip? It’s about a 4 mile stretch of a street on Las Vegas Boulevard South
Young 21 year old Matthew Fitzpatrick from England tied for 7th at the Masters earning himself a return trip next year. That was the last of his five PGA Tour wins. Snedeker has eight PGA Tour wins including his latest win which was at the 2016 Farmers Insurance Open in early February. Zach Johnson has not won since capturing his second major at the 2015 British Open last July. Weekley also won at Colonial in 2013 for three career PGA Tour wins. Billy Horschel, Branden Grace, Kevin Na – 40 to 1 odds each
Aaron Baddeley – 140 to 1 odds
Boo Weekley – 140 to 1 odds
2. Thomas is 22 years old and he won for the first time on tour last November in the 2015 CIMB Classic.
6. Paul Casey – 16 to 1
4. He does have 13 European Tour wins but his last win was in 2014.. Paul Casey has only won once on the PGA Tour back in 2009. Baddeley missed the cut at Houston two weeks ago in his last start. He’s a tough bet here at only 25 to 1 odds.
Carl Pettersson – 225 to 1 odds
3. If Jason Day falters this week this kid could win.
The 2016 RBC Heritage golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from April 14-17, 2016, at the Harbor Town Golf Links at the Sea Pines Resort on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. He missed the cut last week as did Jason Dufner. Billy Horschel tied for 17th at the Masters last week which is not bad but Horschel only has three tour wins and his last win was at the Tour Championship in 2014.
After being the low amateur at the Masters and tying for 21st place overall, Bryson DeChambeau is turning pro for the 2016 RBC Heritage.Not many golfers win their pro debuts and this guy should be higher than 66 to 1 odds this week.
Stewart Cink has wins in this tournament in both 2000 and 2004. Jason Dufner, Charles Howell, Charley Hoffman, Tony Finau, Luke Donald, Graeme McDowell – 50 to 1 odds each
Davis Love III – 250 to 1 odds
Bryson DeChambeau – 66 to 1 odds
Luke Donald is a fomer #1 ranked golfer but he’s not won a tournament since 2012. Boo made the cut in his last two tournaments but he was no threat to win either time.
Carl Pettersson from Sweden won the RBC Heritage in 2012. Brandt Snedeker – 20 to 1
T-10. Kevin Kisner – 25 to 1
The RBC Heritage golf tournament dates back to 1969 when Arnold Palmer won the inaugural event. Matt Kuchar, Zach Johnson – 22 to 1 odds each
Bill Haas tied for 24th last week at the Masters. He missed the cut last week but improvement is expected this week.
Justin Leonard won this tournament in 2002. Justin Thomas tied for 39th at the Masters. Matthew Fitzpatrick – 30 to 1
T-13. Haas has six PGA Tour wins with his last win coming in January of 2015. Prior to The Masters, Jason Day won the Arnold Palmer and the WGC Match play in back-to-back weeks but he took a week off before the Masters. Charles Howell has two wins on tour in 463 starts. Pettersson has missed the cut in his last two PGA tournaments.
Kevin Kisner tied for 37th place at the Masters last week. He has four career PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2013. He’s got three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2011.
1. Justin Leonard is 43 years old and he has 12 PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2008.
Kevin Na has now played in 312 PGA events and he only has one win. He has 12 PGA Tour wins. Branden Grace missed the cut at the Masters last week but the 27 year old has seven European Tour wins including the 2016 Qatar Masters in January. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 RBC Heritage golf tournament.
Justin Leonard – 175 to 1 odds
Listed below are all the PGA golfers with odds of 50 to 1 or less with comments. He’s a talented golfer but he never wins. Jason Day – 5.5 to 1 odds
Brandt Snedeker tied with Jason Day last week in 10th place at the Masters. He has 21 PGA Tour wins including a shocker last year at the 2015 Wyndham Championship at age 51.
Paul Casey tied for 4th at Augusta last week and now he’s the second choice in the betting odds to win this week at 16 to 1. He’s 44 years old and he has six wins on the PGA Tour with his last win coming in 2009 at The British Open for his only career major.
T-8. The rest of these golfers at 50 to 1 odds each did not play last week in the major.
Stewart Cink – 150 to 1 odds
Boo Weekley won the RBC Heritage in back-to-back years in 2007 and 2008. He’ll win this week if he’s back to his previous form but is 5.5 to 1 odds worth the risk?
Matt Kuchar tied for 24th at the Masters. Fitzpatrick has a lot of talent and he won his first pro tournament last October at the 2015 British Masters on the European Tour. Davis Love III (1987, 1991, 1992, 1998, 2003) holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five followed by Hale Irwin (1971, 1973, 1994) with three wins. Charley Hoffman tied for 29th at the Masters last week. Kuchar has seven PGA Tour wins but his last win was in the RBC Heritage in 2014. Aaron Baddeley won the RBC Heritage in 2006. In his last start, Brian missed the cut at the Valspar Championship over a month ago.
Graeme McDowell won the RBC Heritage in 2013. Tony Finau won for the first time on tour on March 27, 2016 at the Puerto Rico Open, an alternate PGA Tour event. The big news for the 2016 RBC Heritage is that Jason Day is in the field and he is easily the highest ranked golfer here this week.
After a 10th place tie in the Masters last week, Jason Day is still ranked as the #1 golfer in the world and he’s the fairly heavy favorite to win the 2016 RBC Heritage at betting odds of 5.5 to 1. Bill Haas, Justin Thomas – 33 to 1 odds each
Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 RBC Heritage!
Davis Love III holds the record for most wins in this tournament with five but his last win here was in 2005. He’s 32 years old and his only PGA Tour win came last November in the RSM Classic. Then a number of notable golfers are also listed with comments who have much higher odds this week to win the 2016 RBC Heritage.
Brian Gay won this tournament in 2009. Davis tied for 42nd last week at the Masters
A signal to change, to slow down, to breathe more deeply and to go within.Tags: spirituality, happiness, happy, success, personal developmentWhy Is It Important For A Doctor To Opt For Spiritual Retreat In Bali? By: Ashis Kumar – Here in this article you will find some points that describe why doctors opt for spiritual retreat in Bali.Tags: retreat bali, bali retreat, retreat, meditation, yogaGet Over Yourself, Connecting Is Key To Communicate Your Dream, So Get Over Yourself! By: Sandy Z – Everyone communicates but few connect. If your birthday falls in the range of April 6th thru April 13th, you will be luckier during the days of the Full moon. Using fadic addition from Numerology gives us the sum of (13) which reduces to (4). Most people are so busy thinking that they d … As an Aries, you probably know your basic Horoscope, but did you know that there are particular days and hours of the Month which are especially lucky for you? Here are some times when you will be especially lucky.
===> Lucky Moon Days
The celestial number of Aries is (7), and Mars, the ruling planet of Aries has a numerical value of (6). Therefore, any day of the month who’s digits reduce to (4) is a lucky day for people born under Aries. This number varies by the day of the week. Tags: Get over yourself, getting over yourself, get over myselfLuz Da Serra – Encontre O Seu Caminho De Luz By: Jill Cohen – O nome Luz da Serra nasceu de uma imensa admirao que os seus fundadores, Bruno J.Gimenes e Patrcia Cndido, sempre tiverem ao ver o pr do sol na serr gacha. Deutsch – From the time we are born, we are always on our way to becoming something. You must first connect. Tags: universal law, victims, sow, reap, abusive behaviorA Teacher Helps Us To Nourish Our Career And Future By: savemypc – A teacher has a lot of importance in our life from the time we are born. Visit him on the web today at http://www.numerology4you.com
Tuesday: You are luckier during the 1st, 8th, 15th, and 22nd hour after sunrise.
Many sources hold that you are luckier during the day when your ruling planet is governing. Tags: becoming, spiritual, near-death, God, mortality
Friday: You are luckier during the 6th, 13th, and 20th hours after sunrise.
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People born in the date range of March 21st through April 19th have the Astrology sun sign of Ares the Ram. If it falls in the range of March 29th thru April 5th, you will be luckier during the days of the second quarter of the Moon. In other words, what goes around, comes around. If you are going to gamble on the lottery during the month; you should buy your ticket on one of the following days: the 4th, 13th, 22nd, or 31st. Deutsch – It’s a universal law that says, what you sow, so shall you reap. Don’t play the victim when you are subjected to the same typ …
If you were birthday falls in the range of March 21st thru March 28th, you will be luckier during the days of the New Moon. It is difficult to survive without a teacher. Do you have a dream or vision that you want to communicate to the world.
About the Author:
Keith Abbott is the developer and owner of ‘Numerology 4 You’ where you can order your own Numerology reading, including your complete Lucky Days calendar. Tags: outside the box, meditation, thinking, consciousness, astralWe’re On The Way To Becoming By: Connie H. When we look back, we can measure our progress by the way our thoughts and actions have defined our … Finally, if you were born in the range of April 14th thru April 19th, you will be luckier during the Moon’s fourth quarter.
Wednesday: You are luckier during the 5th, 12th, and 19th hour after sunrise.
Thursday: You are luckier during the 2nd, 9th, 16th, and 23rd hours after sunrise.
Sunday: You are luckier during the 7th, 14th, and 21st hours after sunrise.
Lessons In Surrender – Becoming More Spiritual By: Heidi Alexandra Pollard – It began with a feeling, then a sign, a nudge and then a book. The teacher teaches us how to survive on this earth by f … Tags: experienced teacher in BrisbaneThe Most Unexpected Website I Came Across Was That Of The Grace Church! By: onlinejazz – Internet always throws up some surprise or the other for us anyways! The more we explore, the more we come across things! And most interestingly, we end up finding out website … Connection comes from the heart. For people born under Aries, the following calculations hold.
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Monday: You are luckier during the 4th, 11, and 18th hours after sunrise.
If you are born under Aries, and are playing a game of chance with a partner, you will be luckiest when that partner is born under one of the following signs: Aquarius, Gemini, Leo, Sagittarius, or Libra.
Saturday: You are luckier during the 3rd, 10th, 17th, and 24th hour after sunrise.
. Uma reg … Tags: espiritualidade, sucesso e prosperidadeKaal Sarp Dosh Yog And Its Effects By: Vijay Bharti – Kaal Sarp Dosh is one of terrific condition in ones kundli so it require proper remedy and astrological consultation by Vedic Astrologers
Tags: kaal sarp yog puja, kaal sarp dosh puja, kaal sarp doshWhat Goes Around, Comes Around By: Connie H. Tags: Christ Church videos, video sermons online, video sermonThinking Outside The Box By: Connie H. You can determine this hour by starting at sunrise, and then counting forward to your lucky hours. In addition, you should look for the number (4) to appear in your winning numbers. Deutsch – Thinking outside the box actually requires you to suspend the thought process long enough for the answers to come into your mind. Co ..
Danny Lee is 25 and he won for the first time on tour last year at the Greenbrier. He tied for 35th last week. Sergio Garcia – 20 to 1
2. Jordan Spieth is playing this week trying to win this tournament for the first time. Koepka can hit the ball as far as anybody on tour so he’s always a threat. Vijay has 34 career wins on the PGA Tour but his last win was in 2008. Gary Woodland is 31 years old and he has two PGA Tour wins with his last win in 2013. Expect him to play better this week also. He should play better this week but 25 to 1 odds are probably not enough for a bet on him to win.
5. Zach Johnson – 25 to 1
At odds of 7 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite to win the 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson. He tied for 35th last week at the Players. Last year he finished tied for 30th in the Byron Nelson.
T-6. Woodland has missed only one cut this season in 13 tournaments but has yet to crack the top 10 in any start.. He has one career win, which came in 2012, in 187 starts. He was likely rusty last week and should play much better this week. Sergio had not played since the Masters. He has 8 PGA wins and 11 more European Tour wins. Jordan Spieth missed the cut by a stoke last week at the Players which was his first tournament since the Masters. Brendon Todd won the Byron Nelson in 2014 for his only PGA Tour win to date. Jason Dufner won for the 4th time in his career in January but has not really played well enough to win since. Charl Schwartzel – 25 to 1
Vijay Singh won this tournament in 2003. He tied for 64th place last week at the Players. Tom Watson (1975, 1978-80) holds the record for most wins in the tournament with four. Ryan Palmer tied for 4th at the Texas Open and tied for 23rd last week so he’s playing well. Bradley, the nephew of LPGA great Pat Bradley, has not won on tour since 2012. Dustin Johnson – 9 to 1
Zach Johnson has not played great since he won the 2015 British Open. He has three wins on tour but his last win was in 2010.
Ernie Els won the Byron Nelson back in 1995. Brandt Snedeker, Marc Leishman – 33 to 1 odds each
Brooks Koepka is interesting this week. Jimmy Walker, Jason Dufner, Ryan Palmer – 40 to 1 odds each
Keegan Bradley won the Byron Nelson in 2011. Snedeker missed the cut last week.
1. Louis has been playing well this year though. He missed the cut at the Players last week and he should play better this week but he only has the four wins in 295 career starts which makes him a tough bet for the win.
Bryson DeChambeau tied for 4th at the 2016 RBC Heritage in his first pro start but has missed the cut in his two tournaments since. Kuchar has seven PGA Tour wins but his last win was over two years ago.
Louis Oosthuizen’s only PGA Tour win remains the 2010 British Open. Sam Snead is second with three wins (1945, 1957, 1958) followed by Jack Nicklaus (1970, 1971) and Bruce Lietzke (1981, 1988) with two wins each.
9. He finished second in the WGC Match Play in March and won the Perth International on the European Tour in February. Dustin Johnson has nine PGA Tour wins with his last win coming at the 2015 WGC-Cadillac 14 months ago.
Marc Leishman is a great golfer but not a great winner. The problem with Charl Schwartzel this week is he has not played since he missed the cut at the Masters.
Steven Bowditch is the defending champion in the AT&T Byron Nelson but he’s been playing terrible lately missing the cut in his last five starts. He finished tied for 35th last week.
Steven Bowditch – 250 to 1 odds
Tiger Woods (1997) and Jason Day (2010) have won this tournament once each. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson.
Listed below with comments are all the PGA players this week with odds of 50 to 1 or less to win the 2016 Byron Nelson. The 26 year old has three top 10 finishes in 2016. Charley Hoffman – 22 to 1
Matt Kuchar played well last week tying for 3rd place but he is tough bet here at only 18 to 1 odds. Jordan Spieth – 7 to 1
3. That was the first of his three PGA Tour wins including the 2011 PGA Championship major. Brooks Koepka – 28 to 1
Brendon Todd – 200 to 1 odds
The 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 19-22, 2016, at the TPC Four Seasons Resort located in Dallas, Texas. Matt Kuchar – 18 to 1
T-15. He missed the cut last week at the Players. Bryson DeChambeau, Danny Lee, Gary Woodland – 50 to 1 odds each
Ernie Els – 150 to 1 odds
Jimmy Walker missed the cut in his last two starts including last week. Brandt Snedeker has 8 wins in 256 starts including winning the 2016 Farmers Open on February 1st. He has one PGA Tour win and one European Tour win so far in his career.
The Byron Nelson has been played annually since 1944. He tied for 28th place last week.
Good luck this week to all the PGA golfers and especially to all the bettors at the 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson!
Sergio Garcia was likely rusty at the Players where he tied for 54th place. That was his first start since the Masters and he was likely rusty too. Brendon Todd is 30 years old.
4. For his career, Ernie Els has over 40 wins on the European and PGA Tours combined but his last win was 2013. Bowditch has two wins on tour and they came one each over the last two years and both were in Texas and it’s not impossible he could turn it around this week but he’s still a tough bet.
T-6. Ernie is 46 years old.
Keegan Bradley – 66 to 1 odds
T-10. Vijay is 53 years old.
Charley Hoffman won the Texas Open a month ago for his 4th PGA Tour win. Will he win? Your call.
T-12. Then some notable players are also listed with much higher odds who have won this tournament in the past.
T-6. He also won the Tshwane Open in February for his 9th European Tour win. Sergio’s last win anywhere was at the 2015 Ho Tram Open on the Asian Tour on December 6, 2015.
Charl Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March for his 2nd PGA Tour win. He was 5th at the Arnold Palmer a few months ago but he finished tied for 54th place last week. Louis Oosthiuzen – 25 to 1
Dustin Johnson tied for 28th last week at Sawgrass
Now I have been using Roulette Sniper over the previous 2 weeks and I know it’s one of the greatest worthy tools in the universe for beating the roulette table. Depending on which casinos you play at, this may influence the number of betting breaks you get but will boost the number of chips you acquire, so it is best to choose an online casino so you can deactivate the moving graphics.
Roulette Sniper turns the casinos upside down and shakes their pockets empty. Get the software that will make you filthy rich!
. I am not going to show you the chips that I rake in playing with Roulette Sniper, but I will explain to you that it works.
This morning I was researching the net looking for an alluring roulette wheel idea I discovered a software application identified as Roulette Sniper.
Secret to Winning at Roulette Betting Strategy System.
One vital tip that I do propose with this kick a$$ software is to check off conservative settings, but raise the high/low numbers by roughly five digits. I installed the 60 minute free trial software that the Roulette Sniper website offers me and tried it out. I couldn’t trust how closely, the trial version was predicting when I should bet. In the first 10 minutes I raked in more cash to really purchase for the Roulette Sniper full version.
Before you apply certain ideas with the roulette wheel, you should educate yourself on how to improve your odds of winning exponentially – and everyone should rake it in.
Remember to maintain smart money management strategies while playing at the online casinos and you will win and walk away glamorously.
If you’re like me, you could be most likely reading this article because you appreciate roulette
The excitement of the casino floor, and the hopefulness of the divine possibility of striking it rich. The “Wheel of Fortune” slots may be the hottest slot machines in Vegas, followed by “Money Madness.” Game-on!
Check out Vegas.com for up to the minute jackpot totals and list of jackpot hits and locations.
Checkout the slideshow pictures to see the “Top 5 Casinos.” (Travel Adviser)
This city of excess, is truly one of a kind. But, the true allure of Las Vegas, is gaming.
On your next visit to Las Vegas, you may want to checkout some of these hot slot games which really seem to be the ones to play, because of the winning history. Winning a fortune on a one-dollar slot machine is a pretty awesome notion, however slim the odds.
In Las Vegas, the lights are brighter, the colors are bolder and the bets are bigger. www.vegas.com/gaming/jackpots/
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $931,740.44 8/1/2012 Mandalay Bay
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,112,650 7/4/2012 Wynn Las Vegas
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,064,121.24 6/21/2012 Hard Rock Hotel & Casino
Money Madness $2,256,246.45 5/28/2012 The Orleans
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $412,640.33 5/26/2012 Caesars Palace
Las Vegas offers entertainment, shopping, fine dining, and sightseeing attractions. In Las Vegas, it’s go big or go home! The top five Las Vegas hotel casinos featured in the attached slideshow, lead the way in sophistication, style and excitement.
The list of winning slots games, prize winnings, dates and winning casinos.
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,224,958.16 5/1/2012 Rio All-Suite Hotel & Casino
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,216,081.79 4/5/2012 The Venetian
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,350,270.42 3/12/2012 Tropicana Laughlin
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $361,025.76 3/12/2012 Bill’s Gamblin’ Hall & Saloon
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $489,456.12 2/12/2012 Sam’s Town Hotel & Gambling Hall.
Megabucks $1 $17.3 million 12/17/2012 M Resort
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $273,884.78 10/27/2012 McCarran International Airport
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,926,336.42 10/20/2012 Harrah’s
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $795,551.20 10/20/2012 California
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $225,081.10 8/4/2012 LVH – Las Vegas Hotel & Casino
If you love playing the slot machines, here are some winning results to remind you that hitting the big one can, and does happen. Even the accommodations in Las Vegas are overly opulent. You can work hard all of your life to amass a fortune
“Betting to Win” an outcome event like The Masters is the most common way to wager on individuals competing for a particular non-team title. What team will win the coin toss
Betting sides and totals on major sports like baseball, basketball and football are the most common wagers available everywhere.
. The same holds true for major team sports like NFL and college football, NBA and college basketball and MLB baseball. Since golf and NASCAR both have pre-qualifying, not everybody makes the cut to the final day of competition, and these group matchups require all individuals to qualify in order to be eligible for action.
Here’s how the money line would be listed: Serena Williams -400 / #102 Ranked Opponent +360. However, many sportsbooks also offer proposition bets (or props short) for gambling on non-team sports like golf, tennis, boxing and auto racing – including NASCAR – due to their growing popularity. The odds on a “field” bet are typically comparable to a bet on the favorite in order to protect sportsbooks from taking a big hit if a major upset occurs.
Furthermore, a tennis match would be considered a tournament-style head-to-head matchup since the competitors involved directly play against each other in the event. For more information on how this works, be sure to check out How to Read the Money Line.
For example, if Serena Williams faced an overmatched opponent in the U.S. The Imperial Palace Casino’s sportsbook is well-known for the enormous number of prop bets offered. If her opponent pulls off the upset, $100 bet on the underdog would profit $360 (plus the return of the $100 risked). Unlike team sports such as football, non-team sports also have multiple events over the course of a year, so “Betting to Win” obviously happens much more frequently than a once a year NFL futures bet on the Super Bowl winner does.
Every $400 bet on Serena nets a $100 profit if she wins (plus the return of the $400 risked). The two main ways of wagering on non-team sports are “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” which pits an individual against another individual or a group of individuals.
It is very important to note that not all the competitors in an event may be listed, so another betting option is on the “field” which includes all other competitors not listed. “Matchup Betting” generally involves an individual going up against another individual in a head-to-head event, such as a tennis match, and the odds are determined using the money line.
Proposition bets for non-team sports are not limited to “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” but those are the primary ways to wager on them.
What will be the exact margin of victory
As you can see, there’s much more to betting than simply totals and sides, especially when it comes to gambling on non-team sports. These artificial matchups are also fake in the sense that bookmakers are the ones creating them – solely for betting purposes – and different books will often offer different matchups.
Group matchups are another way “matchup betting” is used which is particularly popular in golf and auto racing events like NASCAR, where you can select whether a leading competitor or a few other lesser competitors will finisher higher amongst the group, with the odds again based on money lines. An artificial head-to-head matchup involves competitors in an event like a golf tournament or auto race who are indirectly competing against each other since in reality they are competing against everybody in the field, not just one other competitor. For example, betting on the 2006 Masters golf tournament now might get you much better value on Tiger Woods, who may be 10/1 at this moment but dip to 6/1 closer to the event if he is on a roll.
The main advantage of futures is that you can get appealing odds by betting far in advance of when the event takes place. So be aware of all your wagering options and don’t miss out on the excitement non-team sports have to offer with prop betting!
Betting to Win
For non-team sports like golf, boxing, tennis and NASCAR, “Matchup Betting” offers an alternative to simply betting on the event’s winner. These are not fixed and are adjusted by sportsbooks several times leading up to the event and are sometimes released months before an event. Open tennis tournament, a reasonable money line would require Serena bettors to risk $400 to win $100 while a $100 bet on her opponent would win $360.
Before every major event in non-team sports like golf, tennis and auto racing, futures are set by oddsmakers. Props, also known as exotic wagers, are also extremely popular on high-profile team sporting events like the Super Bowl in Las Vegas . In exchange for a lesser payout, field bettors gain the advantages of having more than one entrant that can win for them. Other examples of props for non-team sports include what racing team will finish highest in a particular NASCAR race (Chevy, Ford or Dodge) or how many rounds will the fight between Mike Tyson and Kevin McBride last (Over/Under 8.5 rounds). A NFL future bet on a team to win the Super Bowl might be 20/1 in the preseason; but by midseason, their odds might decrease to 10/1 if they turn out to be legitimate championship contenders.
An example with team sports would be NFL futures, where you often can get much higher odds on a team by betting before the season starts
The Atlantis’ expansive 30,000-square-foot area, which includes 78 table games and approximately 1,000 slot machines, has helped earned the Atlantis Casino its reputation as an immaculate gambling palace. By Puerto Rican law, all casinos have to be located on the property of hotels or resorts. Vincent and St.
Casinos in Puerto Rico
The Caribbean region has a lot of hot gaming spots and casinos. First, each island has its own laws and rules when it comes to gambling, so be sure to find out the details about the island you visit. So not only can you wage bets during your sunny island vacation, but you will also find many other ways to let your hair down at Caribbean gambling palaces. Casinos in Puerto Rico are some of the most exciting in the Caribbean region because of their extravagant historical décor, hot gaming, as well as their award-winning restaurants, live entertainment, array of bars and lounges, and much more.
Gambling in The Bahamas
by: Danielle Mitchell
The world-famous Atlantis Casino is the largest casino located in the Caribbean.
. Caribbean stud poker is a combination of blackjack and poker – the rules of play are similar between the two games. Croix in the Virgin Islands, and Antigua.
This article was posted on February 13, 2006
The Crystal Palace Casino is another sizzling casino found in The Bahamas. This poker variation started in Aruba in the 1980s, reportedly by some cruise ship directors who were out to make a buck. The Crowne Plaza Golf Resort & Royal Oasis Casino is a luxurious and exciting casino located within a plush hotel that has great choices of various games, slots, and other gambling opportunities. And finally, no one under the age of 18 is allowed in Caribbean casinos, so schedule other activities for the youngsters before you hit the casinos.
Compared to many other popular casino card games, Caribbean stud poker has a pretty short history. During your stay in Puerto Rico, you can enjoy fine dining, exciting nightlife, and spectacular gambling fun all under one roof.
Other islands in the Caribbean that feature dazzling casinos and exciting gambling are the Dominican Republic, Aruba, Curacao, St. All players are allowed to see one of the dealer’s cards, which is dealt face up. Located on the premises of the Wyndham Nassau Resort on Cable Beach, the Crystal Palace Casino has about 700 slot machines and 38 tables for games such as blackjack, craps, roulette, and baccarat.
Caribbean Islands Featuring Casinos
While visiting the Caribbean travelers will find a number of glitzy casinos and hotels and resorts with on-site gambling. Many of these glamorous gambling establishments are located in the historic city of San Juan, and most require that their patrons dress formally. The four largest casinos in The Bahamas are the Atlantis Casino on Paradise Island, the Crystal Palace Casino on New Providence Island, and The Crowne Plaza Golf Resort & Royal Oasis Casino and Our Lucaya, both on Grand Bahama Island.
The gorgeous island of Puerto Rico is home to about a dozen old-world-style casinos. The Atlantis also features several restaurants, outdoor terraces, and gaming lessons for the novice gambler.
Before heading to the slot machines, there are a few things casino patrons should remember. Along with state-of-the-art slot machines, table games, and other types of gaming fun, Caribbean casinos also offer other nightlife options including dance clubs, discos, and bars. The combination of sugar-sand beaches and tropical island ambiance with all the glamor and excitement of Las Vegas makes for an ideal vacation destination for many travelers. There are so many choices when it comes to gambling in the Caribbean that you’re sure to find the right island with the perfect casino to fit your style and your ideal vacation. The biggest difference between Caribbean stud poker and traditional poker is that instead of playing against other players, you go against the dealer. Since it began in Aruba, the popularity of Caribbean stud poker has grown tremendously in the region and is even played in Las Vegas. But unlike American and European casinos, the gambling atmosphere in the Caribbean is more relaxed, and most of the island casinos are not open 24 hours a day.
Some popular casinos on the island include the Hyatt Regency Cerromar, Hilton Ponce and Casino, Westin Rio Mar Resort Casino, Ritz Carlton San Juan, which is the first Ritz Carlton casino, and many, many more. Finally, the newest casino in the Bahamas is Our Lucaya Resort, which offers several gambling options.
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Caribbean Stud Poker
Gamers are often drawn to The Bahamas which is popular for great casinos and gambling action. Maarten, St. Although gambling is illegal for residents of The Bahamas, tourists can try their luck at any of the region’s spectacular casinos. Second, the hours that some casinos are open may vary depending on the season, so find out ahead of time before making your plans
I’ve started practicing using my emotions to determine how the game will end up, before the game has even kicked off.
Within each and every one of us is something called an Emotional Guidance System. My logical mind started to kick in…
It was an uncomfortable game and didn’t bring me any joy. If they feel good, good things are coming. “they can’t predict the outcome!”.
If I get a distinct feeling of “positiveness” then the game will be a success and will win.
If I feel pretty bad about the game then it will either be a draw or a loss.
If I feel nothing and am completely neutral, then I don’t make a decision.
If you feel good, you’re attracting good things into your life.
If you feel bad, or neutral, then you’re attracting unwanted things into your life.
Because I watch my team play, I am emotionally attached to the game. The end result was a draw, 2-2.
Your emotions are always a perfect reflection of what’s coming.
Your emotions are your best method of making accurate decisions. I’m not big on betting, but it is entirely possible to bet using your feelings as a judgment call.
How does all of this fit in with betting on events?. It felt horrible and was definitely unwanted.
Is it possible to successfully place a bet and win it using the Law of Attraction? I’ve proved it possible.
When you remove the logical mind and really listen to what you’re feeling, you will always have access to the most accurate answer, since your feelings are an indication of what you’re moving towards. Second half started and the opposing team took the lead and made it 2-1. “your emotions are a load of rubbish!” … You may know it with a different name (gut instincts for example), but simply put the emotions that you feel, are always a perfect match to what you are currently attracting.
As I was practicing this in a recent match I was watching, I noticed a horrible feeling within me. All of your thoughts are created from past experiences and so your logical mind is working within your limited belief system.
If you start removing your attention from the logical mind and stop using your mind to make the decisions, then by relying on your emotions, you will very quickly begin to see that your emotions are always a perfect match to what you’re attracting.
By asking yourself the question “how will I feel about this?”, you will always get a perfectly aligned response from your emotional guidance system. If they feel bad, bad things are coming.
“How do I feel about this game?”
In the opening 10 minutes, we scored a goal and were 1-0 up. This helps me greatly in my decision making. So, I knew straight away that my team was going to lose or draw.
By half-time it was 1-1. I knew before the game started that it wouldn’t. Before the game begins I will ask myself…
I’m an avid football (soccer) fan and I always enjoy watching my team play on television. Your logical mind can only make decisions upon what it already knows
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa.
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. 1952-1953).
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
But, it doesn’t end there.
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
Update note:Dr. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
This makes little sense.
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
AIDS now had a face.
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
Gateway to the West
Mr. Memory Elvin Lewis
Dr. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
The Road to Zero
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet .
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
Less Than Zero
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
From a front-line perspective
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). . Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. . Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. It was so unusual at the time . . The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.